marine engineering

Home page||Ship employment ||

Cargo holds access arrangement - Merchant ships procedure and guidelines

Hold access - New ships
Where the keel of a ship is laid or the ship is at a similar stage of construction, after 31 December 1988 the following standards of hold access should be provided:-

(i) The access shall be separate from the hatchway opening, and shall be by a stairway if possible.

(ii) A fixed ladder, or a line of fixed rungs, shall have no point where they fill a reverse slope.

(iii) The rungs of a fixed ladder shall be at least 300 mm wide, and so shaped or arranged that a person's foot cannot slip off the ends. Rungs shall be evenly spaced at intervals of not more than 300 mm and there shall be at least 150 mm clear space behind each rung.

(iv) There shall be space outside the stiles of at least 75 mm to allow a person to grip them.

(v) There shall be a space at least 760 mm wide for the user's body, except that at a hatchway this space may be reduced to a clear space of at least 600 mm by 600 mm.

(vi) Fixed vertical ladders should be provided with a safe intermediate landing platform at intervals of not more than 9 metres.

(vii) Where vertical ladders to lower decks are not in a direct line a safe intermediate landing shall be provided.

(viii) Intermediate landings shall be of adequate width and afford a secure footing and extend from beneath the foot of the upper ladder to the point of access to the lower ladder. They shall be provided with guard rails.

(ix) Fixed ladders and stairways giving access to holds shall be so placed as to minimise the risk of damage to them from cargo handling operations.

(x) Fixed ladders shall, if possible, be so placed or installed as to provide back support for a person using them; but hoops shall be fitted only where they can be protected from damage to them from cargo handlin operations.

Hold Access - Existing Ships

Where the keel of a ship was laid or the ship was at a similar stage of construction before 1 January 1989, at least the following standards of hol access should be provided:-

(i) Access should be provided by steps or ladder, except;

(a) at coamings; and
(b) where the provision of a ladder on a bulkhead or in a trunk hatchway is clearly not reasonably practicable.
In such cases ladder cleats or cups may be used.

(ii) All ladders between lower decks should be used in the same line as the ladder from the top deck, unless the position of the lower hatch or hatches prevent this.

(iii) Cleats or cups should be at least 250 mm wide and so constructed as t prevent a person's foot slipping off the side.

(iv) Each cleat, cup, step or rung of a ladder shall provide a foothold, including any space behind the ladder, at least 115 mm deep. Cargo should not be stowed as to produce this foothold.

(v) Ladders which are reached by cleats or cups on a coaming should not be recessed under the deck more than is reasonably necessary to kee the ladder clear of the hatchway.

(vi) Shaft tunnels should be equipped with adequate handholds and footholds on each side.

(vii) All cleats, cups, steps or rungs of ladders should provide adequate handholds.

Portable ladders

A portable ladder should only be used where no safer means of access is reasonably practicable. Portable ladders should be pitched between 60° and 75° from the horizontal, properly secured against slipping or shifting sideways and be so placed as to afford a clearance of at least 150 mm behind the rungs. Where practicable the ladder should extend to at least 1 metre above any upper landing place unless there are other suitable handholds.

More on general cargo ship :
  1. Rope handling safe procedure

  2. Ropes are made of short fibres that are spun into yarns, which are then made into flat or twisted strands. And the strands are spun or braided to make the finished rope .
    More .....

  3. Synthetic man-made ropes and hawsers

  4. Although natural fibre ropes are still widely used throughout the marine industry, they have been superseded by synthetic fibres for a great many purposes. Not only do the majority of synthetic ropes have greater strength than their natural fibre counterparts, but they are more easily obtainable and at present considerably cheaper.
    More .....

  5. Natural fibre rope

  6. All natural fibre rope is manufactured from manilla, sisal, hemp, coir, cotton or flax fibres.The process of manufacture consists of twisting the fibres into yarns and turning the yarns in an opposite direction to establish the strands.
    More .....

  7. Lay of Ropes and hawsers - Small Stuff descriptions

  8. The lay of rope is a term used to describe the nature of the twist that produces the complete rope .The most common form of rope at sea is known as ‘hawser laid rope’ comprising three strands laid up right- or lefthanded.
    More .....

  9. Stresses in ship structures and how to mitigate

  10. Heavy weights tend to cause a downward deflection of the deck area supporting the load .This subsequently produces stresses, with consequent inward and outward deflections of supporting bulkheads, depending on the position of initial loading .
    More .....

  11. Anchoring safe practice

  12. Prior approaching an area for anchoring ships master should investigate fully a suitable anchoring position and conduct a planned approach including speed reduction in ample time and orienting the ships head prior anchoring to same as similar sized vessels around or stem the tide or wind whichever is stronger . Final decision to be made on method of anchoring to be used , the number of shackles , the depth of water, expected weather and holding ground. .
    More .....

  13. MacGregor single-pull weather-deck hatch cover

  14. Hatch covers are used to close off the hatch opening and make it watertight. Wooden hatch covers, consisting of beams and boards over the opening and covered with tarpaulins, were once used but are no longer fitted. Steel hatch covers, comprising a number of linked steel covers, are now fitted universally. Various designs exist for particular applications, but most offer simple and quick opening and closing, which speed up the cargo handling operation..
    More .....

  15. Cargo holds access arrangement

  16. The access shall be separate from the hatchway opening, and shall be by a stairway if possible. A fixed ladder, or a line of fixed rungs, shall have no point where they fill a reverse slope .
    More .....

  17. Prepare cargo holds prior loading

  18. Washing is always carried out after the compartment has been swept. Drying time for washed compartments must be allowed for, before loading the next cargo; this time will vary with the climate, but two to three days must be expected.
    More .....

  19. Strength and stability of the Lifting appliances

  20. The vessel's structure, crane, derrick or other lifting device and the supporting structure should be of sufficient strength to withstand the loads that will be imposed when operating at its maximum load moment .
    More .....

  21. Lifting appliances - Maintenance, testing, controls & safety measures

  22. When there is any suspicion that any appliance or item of equipment may have been subjected to excessive loads, exceeding the Safe Working Load (SWL), or subjected to treatment likely to cause damage, it should be taken out of service until it can be subjected to a thorough examination by a competent person.
    More .....

  23. Safe operation of Lifting appliances and gears

  24. All lifting operations must be properly planned, appropriately supervised and carried out to protect the safety of workers.
    More .....

  25. Derricks for lifting cargo on board

  26. Derricks for lifting cargo on board is required to be of adequate strength and stability for each load, having regard in particular to the stress induced at its mounting or fixing points , securely anchored, adequately ballasted or counterbalanced and supported by outriggers as necessary to ensure its stability when lifting.
    More .....

  27. Deck cranes

  28. Deck cranes have a number of advantages, the rigging time being negligible, and the crane is able to pick up and land permitted loads anywhere within its working radius. The safe working loads of cranes is generally of the order of 10 to 15 tonnes and larger cranes are available capable of lifts from 30 to 40 tonnes..
    More .....

  29. Characteristics of Marine paints

  30. Paint consists of pigment dispersed in a liquid referred to as the ‘vehicle’. When spread out thinly the vehicle changes in time to an adherent dry film. The drying may take place through one of the following processes..
    More .....

  31. Protection by Means of Paints

  32. It is often assumed that all paint coatings prevent attack on the metal covered simply by excluding the corrosive agency, whether air or water. This is often the main and sometimes the only form of protection; however there are many paints which afford protection even though they present a porous surface or contain various discontinuities. .
    More .....

  33. Role classification societies maintaining seaworthiness of vessels

  34. classification societies publish rules and regulations which are principally concerned with the strength of the ship, the provision of adequate equipment, and the reliability of the machinery .
    More .....

  35. Periodic survey requirement by classification societies

  36. To maintain the assigned class all steel ships are required to be surveyed and examined by the Society’s surveyors at regular periods. The major hull items to be examined at these surveys only are discussed here..
    More .....

Machinery system main info pages

Home page||Cooling ||Machinery||Services ||Valves ||Pumps ||Auxiliary Power ||Propeller shaft ||Steering gears ||Ship stabilizers||Refrigeration||Air conditioning ||Deck machinery||Fire protection||Ship employment ||

Home ||

General Cargo provide information on cargo ships various machinery systems -handling procedures, on board safety measures and some basic knowledge of cargo ships that might be useful for people working on board and those who working in the terminal. For any remarks please Contact us

Copyright © 2010-2016 General Cargo All rights reserved.
Terms and conditions of use
Read our privacy policy|| Home page||