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Cargo packaging - general cargo ships procedure

The two principle challenges facing shippers are to satisfy both the customer and the shipper. The customer requires a secure and reliable method of carriage whilst the shipper requires that the space on his vehicle of carriage is fully utilised in order to receive maximum freight.

To achieve compatibility between cargo owners and the owners of the means of transport requires knowledge of the cargo-handling procedures in transport. These procedures are described with reference to major characteristics of commodities and cargoes.

The methods of cargo carriage and packaging must be considered at the very outset of the shipping process.

The size and quality of packages must be compatible with the transport technology contemplated, e.g. utilisation of containers depends on positioning packages to avoid empty space. Hence, the considered transformation of commodity to cargo carries significant commercial, operational and economic impact. Space with a container is not just loss of revenue but poses the danger of goods shifting during transit and so sustaining damage.

Basically, packaging performs the following three basic functions, which we may call the three P’s of packaging, namely: protection, preservation and presentation. A package should protect and preserve the contents during storage and transit from the harvesting (for agricultural products), manufacturing (for manufactured goods) or mining (for ore or other mineral products), to the consuming centre.

Protection is required not only against loss, damage and pilferage, but also, depending on the nature of the contents, against moisture entering or leaving the package, high or low temperatures, light, gases, insect infestation, contamination and other natural hazards. The dry cargoes embrace raw materials, semi-finished or finished goods. They do not require the same containment as gases and liquids.

The number of dry cargo types is almost endless. The type of commodity, the level of finishing, and the transport method will determine the need for packaging and storage requirements. Detailed recommendations of methods of cargo carriage, cargo handling, and transport requirements for various types of goods are found in many literatures.

Storage requirements will tend to determine the choice of transport method. Some commodities have to be kept frozen (e.g. meat) while others need refrigeration (e.g. fruit). Flowers need to reach the customers quickly, while other cargoes need adequate ventilation to avoid combustion (e.g. grain, coal and copra).

The shipper must choose a transport method which secures proper storage and speed of delivery. There are several international conventions as well as common practices shipowners will have to follow to secure proper handling of different cargoes onboard a ships.

Loading of dry bulk cargo at dedicated bulk terminal :

Packaging will also have to be considered relative to the transport method chosen. Some raw materials, like ores, need not be packaged at all. If finished goods are moved in containers, the packaging required is much less than if the goods are transported in individual cases.

Summarized below some more details on general cargo ship cargo handling procedure and operational info:
    Cargo handling procedure for heavy indivisible loads
    Heavy indivisible loads may be defined as those which, because of their mass and/or shape cannot be handled by the normal gear available on board ship or on the quay alongside.
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  1. Livestock handling brief procedure

  2. The transport of animals is subject to legislation in many countries. Where risk of disease may exist this legislation is rigorously enforced. In most cases the legislation not only covers the importation of animals, but also the transit of animals, through a port.
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  3. Unitised cargo handling technics for general cargo ship

  4. A grouping together of two or more items (usually of a homogeneous nature) and securing them with banding, glue, shrinkwrap, slings (e.g. clover leaf), to form a unit which, .
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  5. Bagged Cargo handling procedure for general cargo ship

  6. Bagged commodities need to be sufficiently robust to withstand external pressure and compression, as the bag is designed to contain the contents rather than provide any substantial protection against external damage. .
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  7. Bales & bundles handling procedure for general cargo ship

  8. Most baled commodities are impervious to damage from rolling or dropping from limited heights. However, it can be dangerous to drop bales of rubber due to their ability to bounce in any direction..
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  9. Cases,Crates,Cartons, Drums,Barrels,Casks, etc.Handling technics

  10. Cases and crates are usually constructed of plywood or thin low grade timber. Heavier cases may be built up of 150mm×5mm (6×1) planks with strengthening pieces internally and externally while some are built in a skeletal fashion to allow air to permeate through the contents and/or to reduce the weight. .
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  11. DG Cargo handling procedure for general cargo ship

  12. The IMDG Code recognises nine broad classes of Dangerous Goods. For the correct classification and labelling of Dangerous Goods reference should be made to the IMDG Code. .
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  13. Methods of ventilation used in general cargo ships

  14. Ventilation of cargo may be necessary to remove heat, dissipate gas, help prevent condensation and/or remove taint. Heat may be generated by live fruit, wet hides, vermin, and commodities liable to spontaneous combustion .
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  15. Methods of stowage used in general cargo ships

  16. The stowage factor of any cargo is the volume which a certain amount in weight of that cargo occupies. It is usually measures in cubic feet per long ton or alternatively in cubic metres per metric ton. If the stowage factor is 20, it indicates a heavy cargo. If it is 100, it indicates that the cargo is light.
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  17. Special cargo handling in general cargo ships

  18. Ventilation of cargo may be necessary to remove heat, dissipate gas, help prevent condensation and/or remove taint. Heat may be generated by live fruit, wet hides, vermin, and commodities liable to spontaneous combustion .
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  19. Intermediate Bulk Containers ( I.B.C.)handling technics - general cargo ship procedure

  20. An I.B.C. is a disposable or re-usable container designed for the carriage of bulk commodities in parcels of between 0.5 and 3.0 tonnes.
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  21. Dunnage requirement for general cargo ships

  22. The traditional reasons for the use of dunnage have been largely superseded with the introduction of containers and general cargo ships with shallower decks and holds.
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  23. Methods of refrigeration used in general cargo ships

  24. Refrigeration is essentially the removal of heat through the process of evaporation. We choose to refrigerate commodities such as fruits and vegetables because we want to prolong their “practical shelf life” – the time from harvest until the product loses its commercial value.
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  25. Deck Cargo handling procedure for general cargo ship

  26. A large variety of goods, because of their inherent properties (length, height, weight, etc.) may be carried on deck. "On deck" means an uncovered space and includes deck houses having doors which can be continuously open (except in heavy weather)..
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